Saturday, December 6, 2008

Grammar:

Today we covered how to tell time, and how separable pre-fix verbs fit into a sentence.

Some basic rules:

1. Always look for the root of the word
example:

Trennbare verben. Since trennen = separate and -bar = (suffix) -able
trennbare means “separable”.

2. As a general rule, put time in front of place
example:

Wir gehen heute auf den flohmarkt. Ich fahre Dienstag nach Hamburg.

3. Present tense verbs can be use for all three kinds of English present tense.
example:

Ich gehe= I go
I do go
I am going

3a. Present tense verbs can be used for future or past situations if a time expression is used.
example:

Ich gehe morgen. = I will go tomorrow.
Ich warte schon eine Stunde. = I have been waiting for an hour.
Ich bin vor 3 Tagen da. = I was there 3 days ago.

4. Trennbare Verben have two separable parts. They correspond to English Phrasal Verbs.
example:

stattfinden = to take place

anfangen = to begin (to start up)

Es findet statt. = It's taking place. It takes place. It does take place.
Es fängt an.
= It begins. It’s beginning. It’s starting.


5. Pronunciation note

seit is pronounced like "Zite"
Zeit is pronounced like "TSite"

An English hard C as in candle is spelled with a K in German as in Kerzen (candle) /ker TSen/
An English soft C as in center is spelled with a Z in German as in Zentrum (center) /TSen troom/

6. Die Uhrzeit = Time:

Es findet um halb elf statt. = It takes place at 10:30 a.m.

Es fängt um 16 Uhr an. = It starts at 4:00 p.m.

Um = at
die Uhr = clock
die Uhrzeit = time (on the clock)

die Zeit = time (Zeitgeist = spirit of our time)
das Mal = time (einmal, zweimal = once, twice)
mal = times (drei mal drei macht neun = 3 X 3 = 9)

Nie = never
Niemals = never, no time
Je = ever
Jemals = ever
Nie und niemals = never ever

Ich sehe dich nie und niemals wieder. = I'll never ever see you again.

wiedersehen = to see again

Auf Wiedersehen = good bye (until [we] see [each other] again)

23:00 = 11p.m.
00:00 = Mitternacht = midnight 12 a.m.
01:00 = 1 a.m.
12:00 = Mittag = noon 12 p.m.
13:00 = 1 p.m.

30 Minuten = eine halbe (half) Stunde (hour) = a half hour
15 Minuten = eine viertel (quarter ) Stunde (hour) = a quarter hour

NOTE: If two nouns are next to each other, then the word "of" is understood to be there.
(This is preview of the Genetive Case.)

Eine Chance des Glücks
= a chance of luck, or a lucky chance

Eine Frage der Chance = a question of chance

Der Anfang der Revolution = the beginning of the revolution

3 Viertel vor 4 = 3:45 p.m.
Fünf nach zehn = 10:05 a.m.
Fünf vor zehn = 9:55 p.m.
Viertel vor zehn = 9:45 p.m.

9:45 p.m. can be said in two ways:
The best way- Viertel vor 10
or - Drei (3) Viertel 10


halb 7 = 6:30
halb 8 = 7:30
halb 9 = 8:30
halb 10 = 9:30
halb 11 = 10:30
usw. = etc. (undsoweiter = etcetera)

2 (Minuten) vor viertel 11=10:13 a.m. (two minutes before quarter after)

Viertel 11
= 10:15 a.m.

3 nach Viertel 11= 10:18 a.m.

Halb 11 = 10:30 a.m.

Rule: always go to the closest quarter hour

Three ways of saying 12:45 p.m. are:

3 Viertel 13
1 Viertel vor 13
12 Uhr 45 (funf und vierzig)

Was ist die Zeit? =what is the time-in an historical or philosophical sense

Was ist die Uhrzeit? =what is the time-in terms of the clock

Wann fangt es an? = when does it start/begin?

The best option: Wie viel Uhr ist es (or haben wir?)= what time is it; what time do we have?

Um wie viel Uhr, or Wann....? = At what time? or When?

Um drei Uhr = at 3:00 p.m.
drei Studen Lang=3 hours long in duration

Unser Weihnachtsfest findet heute um halb 11 statt. = Our Christmas party takes place today at 10:30 a.m.

Es fängt jetzt an = It is starting now

Christmas = Weihnachten

um halb 11
= at 10:30

anfangen = to begin

 

Fröhliche Weihnachten = Merry Christmas

Schönes Neues Jahr = Happy New Year